CCBS - Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences


Name:Professor Malcolm Macleod 
Telephone:07786 265166 
Job Title:Professor 
Speciality:Translational Neuroscience 
Qualifications:BSc(Hons) MBChB PhD FRCP Ed 

Research Overview: 

My group has led the development and application of systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies modelling stroke. This work allows a very precise estimate of efficacy in animals; the identification of limits to efficacy (e.g. at later time points) in animal models which helps to inform the design of clinical trials; and the identification of aspects of design and conduct which bias the results of animal experiments. Current work is seeking to generalise this approach to models of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. The CAMARADES dataset now includes information from over 2,500 publications, 5,000 individual experiments describing outcome in over 60,000 experimental animals, and has allowed important secondary analyses of for instance publication bias and journal citation patterns.

We have explored the protective effects of hypothermia following acute neuronal injury. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches we have shown that mineralocorticoid expression is increased in cell culture, in animals and in humans following neuronal injury, and that this conveys neuroprotective benefits. Our current work seeks to recapitulate these benefits in a clinical context.

I am Chief Investigator of HAIST, a pilot study of therapeutic hypothermia in acute ischaemic stroke; lead clinician for the South East Scotland Stroke Research Network; and local PI in Stirling for CLOTS, TARDIS, ENOS, AVERT, ROCKET AF, TRA-2P and ENGAGE. I am Honorary Principal Research Fellow at the Florey Neurosciences Institute, Melbourne, Australia and Treasurer of the European Stroke Research Network for Hypothermia.


Research Direction:

1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of animal models of neurological disease
2. Hypothermia and mineralocorticoid receptor induced neuroprotection
3. Clinical trials in acute ischaemic stroke


Board Membership: 

    Recent Publications: 

    • Howells DW, Sena ES, Macleod MR. Bringing rigour to translational medicine. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 Nov 19. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2013.232. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24247324.
    • Vesterinen HM, Sena ES, Egan KJ, Hirst TC, Churolov L, Currie GL, Antonic A,Howells DW, Macleod MR. Meta-analysis of data from animal studies: A practical guide. J Neurosci Methods. 2013 Oct 4;221C:92-102. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2013.09.010. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24099992.
    • Batchelor PE, Skeers P, Antonic A, Wills TE, Howells DW, Macleod MR, Sena ES.Systematic review and meta-analysis of therapeutic hypothermia in animal models of spinal cord injury. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 9;8(8):e71317. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071317. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 23951131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3739756.
    • Tsilidis KK, Panagiotou OA, Sena ES, Aretouli E, Evangelou E, Howells DW,Al-Shahi Salman R, Macleod MR, Ioannidis JP. Evaluation of excess significance bias in animal studies of neurological diseases. PLoS Biol. 2013 Jul;11(7):e1001609. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001609. Epub 2013 Jul 16. PubMed PMID: 23874156; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3712913.
    • Landis SC, Amara SG, Asadullah K, Austin CP, Blumenstein R, Bradley EW,Crystal RG, Darnell RB, Ferrante RJ, Fillit H, Finkelstein R, Fisher M, Gendelman HE, Golub RM, Goudreau JL, Gross RA, Gubitz AK, Hesterlee SE, Howells DW, Huguenard J, Kelner K, Koroshetz W, Krainc D, Lazic SE, Levine MS, Macleod MR, McCall JM, Moxley RT 3rd, Narasimhan K, Noble LJ, Perrin S, Porter JD, Steward O, Unger E, Utz U, Silberberg SD. A call for transparent reporting to optimize the predictive value of preclinical research. Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):187-91. doi: 10.1038/nature11556. PubMed PMID: 23060188; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3511845.
    • Howells DW, Macleod MR. Evidence-based translational medicine. Stroke. 2013 May;44(5):1466-71. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.000469. Epub 2013 Apr 4. PubMed PMID: 23559263.

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